Their study found that many of the highly upregulated miRNAs (miR-155, miR-146a and miR-15b) detected in HSV-1 infected brain tissue are known regulators of inflammation and innate immunity. They also observed upregulation of 7 members belonging to the related group of miRNAs, the miR-200 family and miR-182 cluster (miR-200/182). Using in situ hybridization, they found that these miRNAs co-localized to regions of the brain with severe HSVE-related pathology and were upregulated in various cell types including neurons. Induction was apparent but not limited to cells in which HSV-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry, suggesting possible roles of these miRNAs in the host response to viral-induced tissue damage. Bioinformatics target prediction combined with gene expression profiling revealed that the induced miR-200/182 members could regulate the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Using luciferase assays, they found that miR-96, miR-141, miR-183 and miR-200c all potentially targeted the syndecan-2 gene (Sdc2), which codes for a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved in HSV-1 cellular attachment and entry.