Cardiogenesis processes in human and animals have differential dynamics, suggesting the existence of species-specific regulators during heart development. However, it remains a challenge to discover the human-specific cardiac regulatory genes, given that most coding genes are conserved. Here, we report the identification of a human-specific long noncoding RNA, Heart Brake LncRNA 1 (HBL1), which regulates cardiomyocyte development from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
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Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common heart valve disorder, yet its mechanism remains poorly understood. Valve interstitial cells (VICs) are the prevalent cells in aortic valve and their osteogenic differentiation may be responsible for calcific nodule formation in CAVD pathogenesis. Emerging evidence shows microRNA (miRNA, or miR) can function as important regulators of many pathological processes, including osteogenic differentiation. In a recent study, a team led by researchers from Third Military Medical University aimed to explore the function of miR-449c-5p in CAVD pathogenesis...
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Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) are commercially important fish that are cultured in China. GIFT are highly susceptible to diseases when exposed to high temperatures in summer. Better understanding the GIFT regulatory response to heat stress will not only help in determining the relationship between heat stress signaling pathways and adaption mechanisms, but will also contribute to breeding new high-temperature tolerant strains of GIFT...
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Differential microRNA (miRNA) expression levels have been reported for placental tissues in cases of uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] seed induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to uteroplacental insufficiency. The objective of a recent study by researchers from Clemson University was to assess the impact on placental miRNA levels due to consumption of ergot alkaloids during mid to late gestation...
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Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells are distributed into distinct morphological groups within the serosal, muscular, and submucosal layers as well as the myenteric and deep muscular plexi. PDGFRα+ cells directly interact with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tissue. These three cell types, SMC, ICC, and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP cells), form an electrical syncytium, which dynamically regulates gastrointestinal motility. Researchers from University of Nevada School of Medicine have previously reported the transcriptomes of SMC and ICC. To complete the SIP cell transcriptome project, they obtained transcriptome data from jejunal and colonic PDGFRα+ cells...
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Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the well-substantiated platelet hyporeactivity in neonates is of interest given their implications for the clinical management of newborns, a population at higher bleeding risk than adults (especially sick and preterm infants), as well as for gaining insight into the regulatory mechanisms of platelet biology. Transcriptome analysis is useful in identifying mRNA signatures affecting platelet function. However, human fetal/neonatal platelet transcriptome analysis has never before been reported. A team led by researchers from Morales Meseguer University Hospital recently used mRNA expression profiling for the first time to compare platelet transcriptome changes during development...
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The dark sleeper (Odontobutis potamophila) is an important commercial fish species which shows a sexually dimorphic growth pattern. However, the lack of sex transcriptomic data is hindering further research and genetically selective breeding of the dark sleeper. In a recent study by researchers from Nanjing Normal University, integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA was performed on gonad tissue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in the dark sleeper...
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GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha), a stress response gene induced by genotoxic and nongenotoxic stresses, is implicated in various key processes, including the control of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. The expression of GADD45A is directly regulated by numerous transcription factors, with p53 being the most representative. Moreover, post-transcriptional regulation also plays a role in GADD45A expression. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on GADD45A expression...
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The liver is a vital organ present in animals for detoxification, protein synthesis, digestion and other functions and its powerful regenerative capacity is well known. C. plagiosum is an abundant fish that is representative of the cartilaginous class in the southeast coastal region of China and its liver accounts for > 70% of the fish's visceral weight and contains many bioactive substances. MicroRNAs (microRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis. However, microRNAs in response to liver regeneration has not been well studied. A recent study by researchers from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University aimed to identify the microRNAs that participate in liver regeneration and other liver-related diseases and to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of liver regeneration in sharks...
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