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Wood formation is a complex developmental process primarily controlled by a regulatory transcription network. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can modulate the expression of target genes involved in plant growth and development by inducing mRNA degradation and translational repression. In a recent study, a team led by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Forestry used a model of secondary vascular system regeneration established in Populus tomentosa to harvest differentiating xylem tissues over time for high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs...
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A team of researchers from Auburn University recently sought to examine potential amino acid independent mechanisms whereby hydrolyzed whey protein (WP) affects muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolism in vitro. Specifically, they tested (1) whether 3-h and 6-h treatments of WP, essential amino acids, or l-leucine (Leu) affected MPS, and whether 6-h treatments with low-, medium-, or high doses of WP versus Leu affected MPS...
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streptococcus-mutans6500
MicroRNAs in eukaryotic cells are thought to control highly complex signal transduction and other biological processes by regulating coding transcripts, accounting for their important role in cellular events in eukaryotes. Recently, a novel class of bacterial RNAs similar in size [18–22 nucleotides (nt)] to microRNAs has been reported. In a recent study, researchers from Kyungpook National University describe microRNAs, small RNAs from the oral pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis. The bacteria are normally present in the oral cavities and cause endocarditis by contaminating bloodstreams...
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A recent study by researchers from Beijing Anzhen Hospital sought to identify prostate cancer stem cells and determine the effects of modulating specific miRNAs on prostate CSC proliferation and apoptosis. Investigators applied flow cytometry sorting of side population cells to cultures of prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP). The proportion of SP cells in the TSU line was...
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are heritable neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication and restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior. ASD likely involve deregulation of multiple genes related to brain function and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that play key roles in brain development, synapse formation and fine-tuning of genes underlying synaptic plasticity and memory formation. In a recent study, researchers from the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital employed miRNA micorarray profiling services to review recent studies providing genetic and molecular links between miRNA deregulation and ASD pathophysiology. Their findings highlight the potential of miRNAs as both biomarkers and therapeutic tools in ASD...
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Angiogenesis is a crucial process for brain tissue repair and remodeling after brain injury. It has been demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression profiles are altered in tissues under hypoxic-ischemic conditions. However, its role in angiogenesis subsequent to cerebral ischemia is not fully understood. A recent study led by researchers from the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University of Engineering aimed to investigate the role of miR-519 in angiogenesis and the molecular mechanisms mediated by HIF-1α in an in vitro model for cerebral ischemia. ..
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Many factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, postovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. In order to uncover the genetic regulation underlying egg deterioration caused by postovulatory aging in rainbow trout, a team led by researchers from the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture analyzed mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNA (mitosRNAs) from unfertilized eggs on...
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LC Sciences
The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs continues to be a major clinical problem. MicroRNAs (miRNA, miR) play an important role in regulating tumour cell growth and survival; however, the role of miRs in the development of drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells is largely uncharacterized...
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Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined...
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amongolicus-1
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate target gene expression to modulate plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, an ecologically important desert plant, is increasingly used as a model for studying stress tolerance in plants. The miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network might remarkably contribute to the high stress tolerance of A. mongolicus...
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