Ginseng and its polysaccharides (GPS) are well known immune modulators. A recent study by researchers from South China Agricultural University was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental GPS on the immune responses involved in sow's milk-derived exosomal shuttle RNAs (esRNAs) using RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq...
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To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. A team led by researchers from McGill University characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris.
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Important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating the host response during viral infection have begun to be defined. However, little is known about the functional roles of miRNAs within an in vivoacute viral encephalitis model. Therefore, researchers from the University of Manitoba identified global changes in miRNA expression during acute herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSVE) in mice...
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Although the molecular basis of carpel fusion in maize ovary development remains largely unknown, increasing evidence suggests a critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent study, researchers from Henan Agricultural University used a combination of miRNA sequencing, degradome and physiological analyses to characterize carpel fusion development in maize ovaries to show incompletely (IFC) and completely fused carpels (CFC)...
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Agricultural productivity is severely hampered by drought in many parts of the globe. It is well-known that wild plant species can tolerate drought better compared with their closely related cultivated plant species. Better drought adaptation of wild species over cultivated ones is attributed for their ability to differentially regulate gene expression. miRNAs, known to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are believed to play an important role in plant adaptation to stresses. A recent study aimed to evaluate miRNA dynamics in a drought-tolerant wild Ipomoea campanulata L. and drought-sensitive cultivated Jacquemontia pentantha(Jacq.) of the family Convolvulaceae under ex situ drought...
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Resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) remains a critical barrier to the effective treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a distinct subpopulation of cells implicated in the resistance of tumors to anti-cancer therapy. However, their role in the resistance of EAC to CRT is largely unknown. In a recent study, using a novel in vitro isogenic model of radioresistant EAC, researchers from Trinity College Dublin demonstrate that radioresistant EAC cells have enhanced tumorigenicity in vivo, increased expression of CSC-associated markers and enhanced holoclone forming ability...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a terminal, age-related neurological syndrome exhibiting progressive cognitive and memory decline, however AD patients in addition exhibit ancillary neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) and these include aggression. In a recent report by Dr. Lukiw from the Louisiana State University Health Science Center, him and his team provide recent evidence for the mis-regulation of a small family of genes expressed in the human hippocampus that appear to be significantly involved in expression patterns common to both AD and aggression...
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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α can induce cell apoptosis and activate nuclear transcription (NF)-κB in different cell types. Activated NF-κB further promotes or suppresses cellular apoptosis in different cases. A recent study by researchers from Chongqing Academy of Animal Science explored the effect of activated NF-κB on adipocyte apoptosis induced by TNFα and which microRNAs (miRNAs) were involved in the process...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that participate in diverse biological processes via regulating expressions of target genes at post-transcriptional level. Amphioxus, a modern survivor of an ancient chordate lineage, is a model organism for comparative genomics study. However, miRNAs involved in regulating immune responses in Branchiostoma belcheri are largely unclear. In a recent study, researchers from Nanjing Normal University systematically investigated the microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in regulating immune responses in the cephalochordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) through small RNA sequencing...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Although animal miRNAs have been extensively studied in model systems, less is known in other animal with limited genome sequence data, including Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). To increase our understanding of physiological function in this endangered urodele amphibian, researchers from Henan University of Science and Technology sought to identify the full repertoire of miRNAs expressed in the liver, spleen and muscle of A. davidianus...
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