Differential microRNA (miRNA) expression levels have been reported for placental tissues in cases of uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] seed induces intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to uteroplacental insufficiency. The objective of a recent study by researchers from Clemson University was to assess the impact on placental miRNA levels due to consumption of ergot alkaloids during mid to late gestation...
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Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα)+ cells are distributed into distinct morphological groups within the serosal, muscular, and submucosal layers as well as the myenteric and deep muscular plexi. PDGFRα+ cells directly interact with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) in gastrointestinal smooth muscle tissue. These three cell types, SMC, ICC, and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP cells), form an electrical syncytium, which dynamically regulates gastrointestinal motility. Researchers from University of Nevada School of Medicine have previously reported the transcriptomes of SMC and ICC. To complete the SIP cell transcriptome project, they obtained transcriptome data from jejunal and colonic PDGFRα+ cells...
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Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the well-substantiated platelet hyporeactivity in neonates is of interest given their implications for the clinical management of newborns, a population at higher bleeding risk than adults (especially sick and preterm infants), as well as for gaining insight into the regulatory mechanisms of platelet biology. Transcriptome analysis is useful in identifying mRNA signatures affecting platelet function. However, human fetal/neonatal platelet transcriptome analysis has never before been reported. A team led by researchers from Morales Meseguer University Hospital recently used mRNA expression profiling for the first time to compare platelet transcriptome changes during development...
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The dark sleeper (Odontobutis potamophila) is an important commercial fish species which shows a sexually dimorphic growth pattern. However, the lack of sex transcriptomic data is hindering further research and genetically selective breeding of the dark sleeper. In a recent study by researchers from Nanjing Normal University, integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA was performed on gonad tissue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in the dark sleeper...
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GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha), a stress response gene induced by genotoxic and nongenotoxic stresses, is implicated in various key processes, including the control of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. The expression of GADD45A is directly regulated by numerous transcription factors, with p53 being the most representative. Moreover, post-transcriptional regulation also plays a role in GADD45A expression. However, little is known about the regulatory effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on GADD45A expression...
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The liver is a vital organ present in animals for detoxification, protein synthesis, digestion and other functions and its powerful regenerative capacity is well known. C. plagiosum is an abundant fish that is representative of the cartilaginous class in the southeast coastal region of China and its liver accounts for > 70% of the fish's visceral weight and contains many bioactive substances. MicroRNAs (microRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis. However, microRNAs in response to liver regeneration has not been well studied. A recent study by researchers from Zhejiang Sci-Tech University aimed to identify the microRNAs that participate in liver regeneration and other liver-related diseases and to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of liver regeneration in sharks...
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LC Sciences News
δ T cells located near the epithelial barrier are integral components of local inflammatory and innate immune responses. Researchers from UCLA, The University of Texas Medical Branch, University of Iowa and the University of Texas Health Science Cetner have previously reported the presence of choroidal γδ T cells in a model of chronic degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The goals of their current study were to further define the functions of choroidal γδ T cells and to explore the underlying mechanisms of their action...
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The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an important economic crustacean that has been exposed to various diseases. Spiroplasma eriocheiris, isolated from tremor-diseased E. sinensis, was first identified as a lethal pathogen of freshwater crustaceans. To understand the pathogenesis of S. eriocheiris to E. sinensis, researchers from Nanjing Normal University obtained the transcriptomic profiles of haemocytes in the experimental and control groups at 1 d and 7 d post-injection using poly(A) RNA-seq service...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability and translation of messenger RNAs in diverse eukaryotic groups. Several miRNA genes are of ancient origin and have been maintained in the genomes of animal and plant taxa for hundreds of millions of years, playing key roles in development and physiology. In the last decade, genome and small RNA (sRNA) sequencing of several plant species have helped unveil the evolutionary history of land plants...
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A recent study aimed to screen lymphatic metastasis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung adenocarcinoma and explore their underlying mechanisms using bioinformatics. In their study, miRNA expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma, matched adjacent non-tumorigenic and lymph node metastasis tissues of patients were profiled via miRNA microarray. The screened metastasis-related miRNAs were then validated using quantitative real-time PCR in a second cohort of lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymphatic metastasis...
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