MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability and translation of messenger RNAs in diverse eukaryotic groups. Several miRNA genes are of ancient origin and have been maintained in the genomes of animal and plant taxa for hundreds of millions of years, playing key roles in development and physiology. In the last decade, genome and small RNA (sRNA) sequencing of several plant species have helped unveil the evolutionary history of land plants...
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A recent study aimed to screen lymphatic metastasis-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in lung adenocarcinoma and explore their underlying mechanisms using bioinformatics. In their study, miRNA expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma, matched adjacent non-tumorigenic and lymph node metastasis tissues of patients were profiled via miRNA microarray. The screened metastasis-related miRNAs were then validated using quantitative real-time PCR in a second cohort of lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymphatic metastasis...
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17β-Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone that negatively affects muscle growth in rainbow trout, but the mechanism associated with this response is not fully understood. To better characterize the effects of E2 on muscle, researchers from West Virginia University identified differentially regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and muscle atrophy-related transcripts in juvenile rainbow trout exposed to E2...
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Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer originating from embryonic neural crest cells. Amplification of the proto‑oncogene N-myc, seen in ~30% of neuroblastoma tumors, is a marker for poor prognosis. Recently discovered small regulatory RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), are implicated in cancers, including neuroblastoma. miRNAs downregulate the expression of genes by binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs), thereby inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of cognate mRNAs...
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Plants are sessile organisms that must gauge stressful conditions to ensure survival and reproductive success. In nature, plants often encounter chronic or recurring abiotic stresses, such as heat stress, although the strategies to cope with high temperature are poorly understood in woody plants. In a recent study, researchers from Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University investigated the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in heat stress response in Betula luminifera...
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Gender-biased thymus involution and the importance of microRNA (miRNAs, miRs) expression in modulating thymus development have been reported in many studies. However, the difference between male and female thymus involution remains unclear. To address this question, researchers from South China Agricultural University investigated the miRNA expression profiles in both untreated 3- and 12-month-old female and male mice thymuses using miRNA microarray service...
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to cause translational repression or degradation of targets. The profiles of miRNAs across stages of lactation in small ruminant species such as dairy goats is unknown. In a recent study by researchers from Northwest A&F University, a small RNA library was constructed using tissue samples from mammary gland of Saanen dairy goats harvested at mid-lactation followed by miRNA sequencing service...
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LC Sciences
Taxol is currently a valuable anticancer drug; however, the accumulated mixture of taxoids can vary greatly among Taxus species. So far, there is very little genomic information for the genus Taxus, except for Taxus baccata. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful approach to explore the different regulatory mechanisms underlying the taxoid biosynthesis pathway in Taxus species...
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Plants protect themselves from virus infections by several different defense mechanisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is one prominent antiviral mechanism, which requires the participation of AGO (Argonaute) and Dicer/DCL (Dicer-like) proteins. Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is an antiviral mechanism mediated by resistance (R) genes, most of which encode NBS-LRR family proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plants, including regulation of host defenses. SMV (Soybean mosaic virus) is the most common virus in soybean and researchers from the University of Inner Mongolia identified dozens of SMV-responsive miRNAs by microarray analysis in a SMV-susceptible soybean line in their recent study...
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Research has previously shown that metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a chromatin remodeler, plays an important role in prostate cancer invasiveness, likely through regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In their latest study, researchers from the University of Mississippi Medical Center identified miR-22 as an epigenetic-microRNA (Epi-miR) directly induced by MTA1 and predicted to target E-cadherin...
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